Many people in the Global South and some in the Global North cannot afford clean and sustainable energy, and many live in energy poverty. A just energy transition is an opportunity for economies to make a fresh start and do things differently. In the global south, where many cities are growing and energy production is inadequate, there are many opportunities. This policy brief argues that the issues of fuel poverty and access need to be brought firmly into the Just Transition debate. Only then is change possible. The policy brief provides an overview of the current understanding of what constitutes a just energy transition and what is meant by energy poverty and access by providing an overview of the European Union and Sub-Saharan African context. Finally, some of the policy gaps are identified.